March 25, 2014

The Vietnamese Martyrs

Feast Day : 24 November

The Vatican estimates the number of Vietnamese martyrs at between 130,000 and 300,000 were killed. Pope John Paul II decided to canonize those whose names are known and unknown, giving them a single feast day.

The Vietnamese Martyrs fall into several groupings, those of the Dominican and Jesuit missionary era of the (17th century) and those killed in the Christian persecutions of the 19th century. A representative sample of 117 martyrs — including 96 Vietnamese, 11 Spanish Dominicans, and 10 French members of the Paris Foreign Missions Society (Missions EtrangΓ¨res de Paris) — were beatified on four separate occasions:

Fortissimorum Virorum - 64 by Pope Leo XIII on May 27, 1900,
Purpurata Sanguine - 8 by Pope Pius X on May 20, 1906,
Purpurata Sanguine  - 20 by Pope Pius X on May 2, 1909,
Albae jam ad Messem  - 25 by Pope Pius XII on April 29, 1951.

All these 117 Vietnamese Martyrs were canonized on June 19, 1988. A young Vietnamese Martyr, Andrew PhΓΊ YΓͺn, was beatified in March, 2000 by Pope John Paul II.

The martyrs died during these periods:

- ChΓΊa Trα»‹nh Doanh (1740-1767): 2 people
- ChΓΊa Trα»‹nh SΓ’m (1767-1782): 2 people
- Emperor CαΊ£nh Thα»‹nh (1782-1802): 2 people
- Emperor Minh MαΊ‘ng (1820-1840): 58 people
- Emperor Thiệu Trα»‹ (1840-1847): 3 people
- Emperor Tự Ðức (1847-1883): 50 people

The tortures these individuals underwent are considered by the Vatican to be among the worst in the history of Christian martyrdom. The torturers hacked off limbs joint by joint, tore flesh with red hot tongs, and used drugs to enslave the minds of the victims. Christians at the time were branded on the face with the hieroglyphics 左道, for heterodox doctrine, while their families and villages were destroyed.

The letters and example of ThΓ©ophane Venard inspired the young St. Theresa of Lisieux to volunteer for the Carmelite nunnery at Hanoi, though she ultimately contracted tuberculosis and could not go.

List of names of the Vietnamese Martyrs

  1. Agnes Le Thi Thanh
  2. Andrew Dung-Lac An Tran
  3. Andrew Thong Kim Nguyen
  4. Andrew Trong Van Tram
  5. Andrew Tuong
  6. Anthony Dich Nguyen
  7. Anthony Quynh Nam
  8. Augustine Huy Viet Phan
  9. Augustine Moi Van Nguyen
  10. Augustin Schoeffer
  11. Bernard Due Van Vo
  12. Dominic Hanh Van Nguyen
  13. Dominic Henares, a Dominican bishop from Spain
  14. Dominic Nicholas Dat Dinh
  15. Dominic Trach Doai
  16. Dominic Uy Van Bui
  17. Dominic Xuyen Van Nguyen
  18. Dominic Kham Trong Pham
  19. Dominic Tran Duy Ninh
  20. Dominic Cam
  21. Dominic Huyen
  22. Dominic Toai
  23. Dominic Mau
  24. Dominic Nhi
  25. Dominic Nguyen
  26. Dominic Mao
  27. Emmanuel Trieu Van Nguyen
  28. Francis Chieu Van Do
  29. Francis Gil de Frederich
  30. Francis Isidore Gagelin
  31. Francis Jaccard
  32. Francis Trung Von Tran
  33. Francis Xavier Can Nguyen
  34. Ignatius Delgado y CebriΓ‘n
  35. Jacinto (Hyacinth) CasteΓ±eda, a Dominican
  36. James Nam
  37. Jerome Hermosilla
  38. John Baptist Con
  39. John Charles Cornay
  40. John Dat
  41. John Hoan Trinh Doan
  42. Jean Louis Bonnard
  43. John Thanh Van Dinh
  44. JosΓ© MarΓ­a DΓ­az Sanjurjo
  45. Joseph Canh Luang Hoang
  46. Joseph Fernandez
  47. Joseph Hien Quang Do
  48. Joseph Khang Duy Nguyen
  49. Joseph Luu Van Nguyen
  50. Joseph Marchand
  51. Joseph Nghi Kim
  52. Joseph Thi Dang Le
  53. Joseph Uyen Dinh Nguyen
  54. Joseph Vien Dinh Dang
  55. Joseph Khang, a local doctor
  56. Joseph Tuc
  57. Joseph Tuan Van Tran
  58. Lawrence Ngon
  59. Lawrence Huong Van Nguyen
  60. Luke Loan Ba Vu
  61. Luke Thin Viet Pham
  62. Martin Tho
  63. Martin Tinh Duc Ta
  64. Matthew Alonzo Leziniana
  65. Matthew Dac Phuong Nguyen
  66. Matthew Gam Van Le
  67. Melchor Garcia Sampedro
  68. Michael Hy Ho-Dinh
  69. Michael My Huy Nguyen
  70. Nicholas ThΓ© Duc Bui
  71. Paul Hanh
  72. Paul Khoan Khan Pham
  73. Paul Loc Van Le
  74. Paul Tinh Bao Le
  75. Paul Tong Buong
  76. Paul Duong
  77. Peter Tuan
  78. Peter Dung Van Dinh
  79. Peter Da
  80. Peter Duong Van Troung
  81. Peter Francis NΓ©ron
  82. Peter Hieu Van Nguyen
  83. Peter Quy Cong Doan
  84. Peter Thi Van Truong Pham
  85. Peter Tuan Ba Nguyen, a fisherman
  86. Peter Tuy Le
  87. Peter Van Van Doan
  88. Philip Minh Van Phan
  89. Pierre Borie, Mission Estranger de Paris
  90. Simon Hoa Dac Phan
  91. Stephen Theodore Cuenot, a bishop
  92. Stephen Vinh
  93. ThΓ©ophane VΓ©nard
  94. Thomas De Van Nguyen
  95. Thomas Du Viet Dinh
  96. Thomas Thien Tran
  97. Thomas Toan
  98. Thomas Khuong
  99. Valentine Berriochoa
  100. Vincent Liem the Nguyen
  101. Vincent Duong
  102. Vincent Tuong, a local judge
  103. Vincent Yen Do

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